Campaigns and voting behavior
Campaigns and voting behavior
In general, the usual demographic predictors of voting and other political behavior apply to military personnel. Citizens also use party identification to make decisions via straight-ticket voting—choosing every Republican or Democratic Party member on the ballot. Voters in Michigan can use straight-ticket voting. Although ads, especially those run by super PACs, continue to be negative, candidates can no longer dodge responsibility for them. Yet they will need to make a fully rational assessment of the choices for an elected office. In exploring the benefits of affect on voting, researchers have argued that affective states such as anxiety and enthusiasm encourage the evaluation of new political information and thus benefit political behavior by leading to more considered choices. Other ads will remind party loyalists why it is important to vote. Affect here refers to the experience of emotion or feeling, which is often described in contrast to cognition. What contributes to this advantage and often persuades competent challengers not to run? They will use the information they find in several ways. Some years see an increase in younger voters turning out to vote. Soft news, or infotainment, is a new type of news that combines entertainment and information. Nor will all the candidates get enough media or debate time to reach the voters.
Local and regional elections differ, as people tend to elect those who seem more capable to contribute to their area. Demographics hurt John McCain that year, because many people believed that at 71 he was too old to be president.
General campaigns also try to get voters to the polls in closely contested states. Soft news, or infotainment, is a new type of news that combines entertainment and information.
Do physical characteristics matter when voters assess candidates?
Voters must find more information about each candidate to decide which is closest to their preferred issue positions. Sometimes, shadow campaigns, run by political action committees and other organizations without the coordination or guidance of candidates, also use negative ads to reach voters.
One popular shortcut is simply to vote using party affiliation. Affective influence[ edit ] A growing literature on the significance of affect in politics finds that affective states play a role in public voting behavior that can be both beneficial and biasing.
Chapter 9 campaigns and voting behavior study guide
In these cases, a person may vote for a second- or third-choice candidate, either because his or her preferred candidate cannot win or in the hope of preventing another candidate from winning. Provided by: The Noun Project. One popular shortcut is simply to vote using party affiliation. While party identification is a voting cue, it also makes for a logical decision. Perry, U. Enlisted personnel political behavior has only been studied more recently, notably by Dempsey,  and Inbody. While Adlai Stevenson and Dwight D. Candidates are also frequently using interviews on late night television to get messages out. Money helps them win, and the ability to raise money identifies those who are viable. Regardless of the political preference, this is an interesting differentiation that can be attributed to affective influence. The ad aired once as a paid ad on NBC before it was pulled, but the footage appeared on other news stations as newscasters discussed the controversy over it. Loss aversion[ edit ] The loss aversion theory  by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman is often associated with voting behavior as people are more likely to use their vote to avoid the effect of an unfavorable policy rather than supporting a favorable policy. Elections are unpredictable, and campaigns must adapt to be effective.
In what ways is it lazy? Due to time limitations, voters may not research all the candidates. The size of the effect of expressions of pride on voting for McCain was roughly one third of the size of the effect of party identification, typically the strongest predictor.
For example, evidence has shown that a variety of events that are irrelevant to the evaluation of candidates but can stir emotions, such as the outcome of football matches  and weather,  can significantly affect voting decisions.
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